The aim of education is not to transfer knowledge; it is to guide the learning process, to equip the learner with the methods of research. It is not the piecemeal merchandizing of information; it is to enable the acquisition of the methods for learning on one’s own; it is the provision of keys to unlock the vault of knowledge. Rather than encouraging students to appropriate the intellectual treasures uncovered by others, we should enable them to undertake on their own the process of discovery and invention.
– Tsunesaburo Makiguchi, from The System of Value-Creating Pedagogy
Teaching Geography (excerpt: Spatial Reasoning Discussion Guide) by Phil Gersmehl
Geographic Themes and Spatial Reasoning Infographic
“Spatial Thinking by Young Children: Neurologic Evidence for Early Development and ‘Educability” by Phil and Carol Gersmehl
Neuromyths by Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa