Thinking Like a Geographer

The aim of education is not to transfer knowledge; it is to guide the learning process, to equip the learner with the methods of research. It is not the piecemeal merchandizing of information; it is to enable the acquisition of the methods for learning on one’s own; it is the provision of keys to unlock the vault of knowledge. Rather than encouraging students to appropriate the intellectual treasures uncovered by others, we should enable them to undertake on their own the process of discovery and invention.
– Tsunesaburo Makiguchi, from The System of Value-Creating Pedagogy

Elementary TEKS | 6th Grade TEKS | 7th Grade TEKS | 8th Grade TEKS
World Geography TEKS | AP Human Geography CED
Psychology TEKS | Sociology TEKS
National Geography Standards | Geography for Life

Teaching Geography (excerpt: Spatial Reasoning Discussion Guide) by Phil Gersmehl
Geographic Themes and Spatial Reasoning Infographic

“Spatial Thinking by Young Children: Neurologic Evidence for Early Development and ‘Educability” by Phil and Carol Gersmehl
Neuromyths by Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa

Cartographic (Map) Scale | Spatial Scale
Asking Geographic Questions
Acquiring Geographic Information
Organizing Geographic Information
Analyzing Geographic Information
Answering Geographic Questions

National Geographic Resource Library
National Council for Geographic Education Resource Library